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Design in Nature

Answers to Test Questions

1. A mutation is a randomly occurring heritable change, usually slight, which appears in an individual of a species.

2. Natural selection is the favoring by the environment of individual organisms which possess a particular trait. In natural selection the conditions of the environment make individuals possessing a particular trait better able to survive to produce descendants which inherit that trait .

3. In modern evolutionary theory mutations produce individuals in the population which possess new traits, slight variations from their ancestors. Natural selection causes individuals possessing particular traits to be more successful in producing descendants, so that the population gradually comes to be dominated by individuals having the favored traits.

4. The fossil record fails to support evolution because it does not provide any series of intermediate fossil types which show that a new biological design ever developed gradually from a population of individuals which did not possess that design.

5. The science of genetics shows that, through there is much variation in any species population, the variations are always limited. They go only so far and no farther. Also, genetics has so far failed to provide a theory which explains how randomly occurring natural variations could produce new biological designs. Nor has genetics discovered any natural mechanism which can produce new biological designs.

6. Molecular biology also has failed to provide either theories or mechanisms to explain how evolution could produce new biological designs.

7. The four principal parts of the propulsion system of the microbe, Escherichia coli, are the flagella, the universal joints, the rotary motors, and the control system.

8. The propulsion system of E. coli is a complex combination of complex interdependent parts. All of the parts must be correctly designed and fit together before the system will work and be advantageous to the organism. Gradual evolution of this complex system of parts would have to begin with, say, a particular part, perhaps the universal joint. But such a part without the other parts would be useless. Moreover, the individual possessing it would have to expend precious energy and building materials to produce it, but without any useful function. That individual thus would be carrying a burden not shared by the other members of the species population, would be at a relative disadvantage, therefore less able to compete, and according to Darwinian theory would be eliminated by natural selection before it could evolve further.

9. Creation is by definition a divine miracle, an act of God outside of the natural laws which He established in the world. But science can investigate or explain only things which exist under the system of natural law. Therefore, there can be no "scientific theory of creation," no scientific explanation of how God created. On the other hand, secular scientists claim to be forming theories which explain the origins of life and species and discovering the natural processes which can do the job. Therefore, the burden of proof is on the evolutionists, not on the creationists. The evolutionists must come up with theories which really explain the origin of new biodesigns and with mechanisms really capable of producing new biodesigns. Thus far evolutionary science has failed to achieve this goal. So long as evolutionary science fails, belief in divine special creation continues to be a scientifically viable belief which any scientist, student or teacher of science is free to hold.

10. Science has revealed everywhere in nature, from the nucleus of the atom out to the edge of the universe, a system of marvelously complex designs, all interdependent and working together. Never in the history of the human race has anybody ever observed a new complex design originate from any other source than the minds of purposeful intelligent human beings. Therefore, it is quite logical to believe that the universe with all of its complex designs and interdependencies is the product of an infinitely intelligent, purposeful and omnipotent Mind, Who can be none other than the God of Creation.

11. Many secular scientists believe in extraterrestrial life because they believe(i.e., they assume) (a) that the solar system developed by chance from a cloud of gas and dust, and (b) that life began on earth spontaneously and then evolved upward from amoeba to man.

12. If our solar system evolved by chance, then in the vast reaches of the universe there must be many other similar solar systems with numerous planets similar to our earth. Then, if life began by chance on earth, it surely must have arisen on some other earth-like planets in the universe.

13. The evolution of our solar system from gas and dust is an assumption, not a fact. The existence of other planets similar to earth has yet to be proved. The spontaneous generation of life on the earth is also an assumption, and very much evidence makes it an extremely improbable event, as is also the idea that amoebas evolved into people. Finally, there is no biblical evidence for life on other planets. The hard nosed scientific position on the question of extraterrestrial life is expressed in just two words: "Show me."

14. Any five of the characteristics of the earth-sun-moon system listed in the text would be a satisfactory answer to this question.

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